There is no code implementation for $geoIntersects / $centerSphere.
Although there is also no documentation for usage of $geoIntersects with $centerSphere shape operator
The manual on https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/reference/operator/query/geoIntersects/ mentions:
Although if you specify $centerSphere instead of $geometry for $geoIntersects, it does not throw unknown geo specifier error.
This ticket could be either to add a catch to throw an error to indicate 'not supported' or to add functionality behind the scene for it.